Hey Guys!
I know we are all very busy with the play and with other school work and of course PARTYING! but i would really love some help with costuming because im a bit bogged down at the moment.
If any of the design students or anyone who knows how to sew a hem would like to help me make the aprons that would be fab! also if anyone has relitives who would like to help with making costumes (this includes... cutting out patterns and sewing hems) that would be awesome aswell.
I need everyone to provide their own shoes, black school shoes that have been polished are fine, and Henry i've been told your father may have a wig we can use (we promise to take good care of it!)
John Proctor and Giles will also need knee length boots as they are farmers so if anyone has oldish looking boots that may fit Matt or Edmond could you please let me know.

Thanks a milllion ツ Love G




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The Crucible Research Pages.

Research topics for the world of the play.

Note: If you name is not in red you have not added to this page yet!!!!

Politics

- Leaders: Matt T. and Edmund
3 others devide questions between you, the leaders will guide you, collate the info and add to the wiki.
(Anna, Brad, Holly)

1. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR McCARTHYISM?
Who is McCarthy?

Joseph McCarthy was born in 1908 to a Roman Catholic family. In 1940 he became senator for Wisconsin, as a republican. His first few years as a senator were fairly unsuccessful, so to keep his seat in government he decided to begin a campaign against communists. McCarthy was made chairman of the House of Un-American Activities committee which was an anti-communist group in the 1950’s. Although the ideas of anti-communists had been around for a long time, it received the name McCarthyism from Joseph McCarthy’s actions to prevent communism. In 1954 McCarthy was condemned from government. He died three years later from hepatitis, which was thought to be brought on by alcoholism. (Holly The Cool.)

What is McCarthyism?

McCarthyism is a term describing the intense anti-communist suspicion in the United States during 1940-1950’s. McCarthyism was a widespread social and cultural phenomenon that affected all levels of society and was the source of a great deal of debate and conflict in the United States.
During this time thousands of Americans were accused of being Communists and became the subject of intense investigations and questioning before government or private-industry panels, committees and agencies. The main people targeted on such suspicions were government employees, those in the entertainment industry, educators and union activists. Suspicions remained even though there was often inconclusive or questionable evidence. Many people suffered loss of employment, destruction of their careers, and even imprisonment.
The most famous examples of McCarthyism include Senator McCarthy himself, the 'Hollywood Blacklist' (a list of screenwriters actors, directors, musicians, and other U.S. entertainment professionals who were denied jobs in the field because of their political beliefs or associations, real or suspected), and the various anti-communist activities of the FBI under Director J. Edgor Hoover. (Anna)

2. HOW DID THE PURITANS EMERGE IN BRITAIN AND WHY DID THEY LEAVE?

The Puritans in Britain were unhappy with the idea of The King of England being the head of an English church. They believed strongly that it was wrong to acknowledge any mortal man as being the "Supreme Head of the Church" as the only head of the church should be God himself. This prompted many Puritans to leave England in search of a new life. They sought it first in Holland. But after half a generation their hearts turned back to England. They wished their children to retain their mother tongue, though to England they could not return. Their thoughts roved over the sea to where the English flag was planted on an unpossessed land. The good ship Mayflower carried them to America, and in 1620 they landed in Plymouth Bay. However, it was with the Puritan colony who landed in Massachusetts Bay in 1629 that the New England life really began. Five ships brought them over, two hundred and fifty strong. From here the puritans began to colonise the land of America, dividing up the land into provinces. (Brad)


3. HOW AND IN WHAT WAYS DID THE CHURCH INFLUENCE GOVERNMENT AND VISA VERSA IN EARLY AMERICA?
Early America, especially in Massechusets and the surrounding areas was a strong theocracy. This means that church and state were not seperate, law was dictated by the bible and god was the supreme head of state. Puritans emigrated from Britain to create a theocracy in a new land. Only those who were 'upright in character' could be appointed to the level of a judge or any position of power and decision making. Back then, this meant to follow the word of the bible and puritan ideals to a perfect level. Only the homeliest of people (supposedly) were in these positions.
The basic principles of Theocracy are intergration of Christian values and ideals into the law and construction of state. Problems began to arise, due to basing this particular theocracy on the old testament of the bible; which wasn't particularly tolerant and quite contradictory. However the small theocracies all over America during this time, especially Massechusets, helped contribute to the foundations of America as a state, even making as much impact as to effect the basings of the constitution. (Ed)


Sooo looks like We've both researched the same question... Never mind I'll answer the other one now haha but I might as well upload what I found too. (Brad)

Religion and government, far from being separate, were viewed as essentially connected by the early colonists. The church and religion were viewed as the moral bedrock of any community. Since good government was impossible without good morals, and since religion was essential for morality, reasonable people concluded that good government required the strong influence of religion. Political leaders were duty bound to have the salvation of their people always in mind.
Established churches were supported by taxes, church attendance was required, and one often had to belong to a church in order to vote.
The early settlers brought with them European traditions of established churches and religious conflict. Established churches included the Anglican Church in the Southern Colonies and the Congregational Church in New England. Religious diversity in the Middle Colonies prevented the establishment of any one Church (except for the Anglican Church in part of New York).
Church and religion were central to Puritans. They believed in predestination and that all members of the community must live a moral life, and if they did not the entire community would face God’s wrath. The "Old Deluder Law" passed in 1647 required parents to teach their children to read and towns to establish schools in order to foil the "chief project of that old deluder, Satan, to keep men from the knowledge of the Scriptures."
Religion also had many ties with the laws passed. It was forbidden to run or walk on the Sabbath Day, except "reverently to meeting;" to sweep the house, to cook, or to shave; mothers were advised not to kiss their children on the Lord's Day; adultery, blasphemy, and idolatry were punishable by death; heresy and keeping Christmas Day, by fine and the stocks; absence from public worship, by fine and whipping; renouncing Church membership, or questioning the canonicity of any book in the Bible, by fine and banishment; all gaming was prohibited and cards and dice forbidden to be imported; dancing anywhere, and kissing a woman in the street, "even in the way of honest salutation," was punished by flogging; women were forbidden under penalty of imprisonment to wear clothing beyond their station in life, to cut their hair like a man; and for speaking ill of the minister, to have their tongues fastened in a split stick.
This is good material, well done! Sto

Geography

- Leaders: Lisa and Romero
3 others devide questions between you, the leaders will guide you, collate the info and add to the wiki.
(Jared, Henry, Ben)
Image:Salem Village - map of - Project Gutenberg eText 17845.jpg
Image:Salem Village - map of - Project Gutenberg eText 17845.jpg
(LISA=))

1. What was the physical environment of Salem?
Salem was a small village located approximatley 60 miles from the pacific ocean. The town recieves a lot of rainfall due to it being so closely located to some large mountains. The city is located in the state of Massachusetts, which is a north eastern American state, meaning it will be cold during the winter months and recieves some snow over the winter, though it was warm during the summer. The Willamette river flows through the town. the town is surrounded by two mountain ranges most of which is covered in large forests. (Henry??)
2. How did the people of Salem live?
The events of 1692 took place during a difficult and confusing period for Salem Village. As part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Salem was under British rule. When the hysteria began, the colony was waiting for a new governor and had no charter to enforce laws. By the time the new governor, William Phips, arrived in Massachusetts, the jails were already filled with alleged witches. To make matters worse, New England towns were under attack by Native Americans and French Canadians.

Salem Village faced daily challenges closer to home as well. Most families had to support themselves, making their own clothes, planting vegetables, raising meat. Farming was often a painstaking task in the harsh climate and rough, rocky terrain—and a drought or flood could ruin a year’s harvest. An epidemic of smallpox could kill a family. In a world where people saw the Devil lurking behind every misfortune, it is little wonder they believed evil spirits were at work.

But there may have been stronger factors behind the witch hunts—the Puritan lifestyle, a strong belief in the Devil and witchcraft, the divisions within Salem Village, and the expectations of children. Click each topic below to learn more:

(LISA=))
Great stuff Lisa
3. How was the population comprised?

The English Puritans arrived at Salem in 1626 looking for religious freedom. In 1692 there were around 500 men and women living in Salem. Gender distinction was common and women were oppressed. There were no blacks except for slaves. (Jared)Can you add what kind of work they did, who did what and what was the status of the work and how wa status decided.

Role of a reverend in 1962 life in america.
All reveredns are ordained by the church. This means that the supreme power of the church has acknowledged that the man has the light of god in him. He is gods ambassador on earth. Because of the very large impact of religion on society at the time, these men held huge influence in their community. They would lead the village congregation on Sundays and preach the word of god. However they also had other duties outside of mass including involvement in court proceedings. On occasion they may be called upon to investigate reports of witchcraft or devil worship. John Hale is well studied in this field.
The reverend would usually live in a house that was near to or part of the church. His salary would come from the taxes of the surrounding farms.
These men were the purest of a pure society, or at least that was the intention. In the play we see that perhaps Parris is not. They held together the town and enforced the strict and immovable doctrine of the bible.

BEN

Sociology

- Leaders: Megan and Charlotte
3 others devide questions between you, the leaders will guide you, collate the info and add to the wiki.
(Jonny, Annaleisha, Kelly)

1. Why did Arthur Miller write the 'The Crucible'?
The events in the play, ‘The Crucible’ by Arthur Miller is based on the actual events that took place in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692 , it is set in the middle of the witch hunts of the Salem witch trials in the late 17th century. The Salem Witch Trials were a series of hearings before local magistrates to prosecute over 150 people accused of witchcraft in colonial Massachusetts between February 1692 and May 1693.
The play is set in the town after accusations from a few girls, which begins a mad hunt for witches that did not exist. Many townspeople were hanged on charges of witchcraft. Miller brings out the absurdity of the incident with the theme of truth and righteousness.
The Crucible was written in 1953 during the McCarthy period when Americans were accusing each other of Pro-Communist beliefs, His state of mind led him to write social plays where he analysed human behaviour and society as he was influenced by the depression and has always felt concerned by social issues.Miller himself along with his friends was to be questioned by the ‘House of Representatives’. It was in 1956 where he was found guilty of beliefs in communism.
The fate of each character is exactly that of his historical model, and there is no one in the drama who did not play a similar-and in some cases exactly the same-role in history. Although some of Millers tellings of the tale had some minor historical inaccuracies, as he reports “The play is not reportage of any kind .... nobody can start to write a tragedy and hope to make it reportage .... what I was doing was writing a fictional story about an important theme.”
Despite the obvious political criticisms contained within the play, most critics felt that "The Crucible" was "a self contained play about a terrible period in American history
." by charlotte

Arthur Millers background -

Arthur Millar was born in New York in 1915, and grew up in a small house in Brooklyn. He was considered a nonintellectual as a child and after graduating in 1932 he worked in an automobile warehouse to earn money for university. He decided to become a writer and studied journalism in Michigan and began playwriting. He started off writing scripts for radio programs until his first play appeared on Broadway in 1944. By this time Millar was married to his high school sweetheart Mary Slattery and had two children. He continued writing plays from this point onwards. The Crucible was written in 1953 during the McCarthy period when Americans were accusing each other of Pro-Communist beliefs. Along with many of his friends, Millar was brought before the House of Un-American Activities Committee where he was found guilty of beliefs of communism meaning he was unable to attend the premiere performance of The Crucible. In 1957, Millar married Marilyn Monroe. They were together for four years before their marriage broke off while producing Misfits in which Millar had written a role especially for his wife. In 1963, Millar married Inge Morath (a photographer) and became very politically active. He was president of the international literary organization (PEN) and was a delegate for Eugene McCarthy at the Democratic Party Convention. He returned to playwriting in 1964 after a nine year absence and also helped Morath with her books about China and Russia. After a PEN organized trip to Turkey along with playwright Harold Pinter in 1985, Millar wrote his last two plays before deciding that theatre was dying and that more people were interested in movies and television. Arthur Millar died of heart failure in his Connecticut home in February 2005. - Annaleisha

2. How does witchcraft develop in societies?
A way to blame misfortune on something. Seen as a conspiracy to overthrow Christ. Three different types of witches; one is the person who as bettered them selves through use of the 'supernatural'. Eg midwives, healers or some other profession that the rest of the community doesn't understand and is resentful of. Another is the witch who appears in dreams, a demon ect, the third is the 'neighbour hood witch', that 'curses a neighbour following some conflict.' these all seem to link to each other and also the play. They all seem to be some way to blame uncontrollable misfortune on a punishable figure. In the play the 'type' of witch seems to be a mixture of all three because of the petty squabbles for land between neighbours, the demonic, 'sending of spirits', and the jealousy at some others good fortune as seen between goody Putnam and Rebecca nurse the midwife. The accusations could also be credited to the pressure from the environment, and large families to feed. Because of the need for more farm land to provide food the puritans of Salem village had to find more, by disputing for their neighbours or encroaching on the native people of America. Puritan society believed themselves and god to be in a never ending fight against the devil and his followers, witches. This is what helped to fuel the hysteria in Salem. The repression of women in puritan society, and the pressure for conformity in the society also lead to the belief of witches in Salem, and would do and have done in many other places and cultures. This is a good overview Megan, (sto).

3. Explore the roles of men and woman and the reasons behind it in Early American society?
People of the time were strongly based around status within society and views of others upon them. Men would work and women would do tasks that seemed less important to men, some would stay home and others would help in others homes with children etc. In Salem especially the main trading was through the food produced. Women were conformised to there husband and would not dare defy them, men had control within the society and were seen as more important than the women (Why?). List the kinds of chores a woman would complete in a day. Note ideas from the bible about roles of women. They were to perform traditional roles including preparing and serving the food, weaving clothing, and raising and educating the children. Women weren't expected to do manual labor as that was considered man's work.
Jonny
  • The Deputy Governor of Massachusetts and the presiding judge at the witch trials. Honest and scrupulous, at least in his own mind, Danforth is convinced that he is doing right in ridding salem of witchcraft.
  • He has a strong voice of authority in the court and will not be undermined. He questions anything anyone says to him as if it is a potential threat to both the power of the court and the integrity of the law.
  • Believes in serving god through serving out 'his' justice and believes he is doing gods work so no one is punished unjustly.
  • Danforth see's himself as fair-minded so it angers and disturbs him to find out people are afraid of the court.
  • Danforth does not want to appear weak and always wants to let others in the courtroom that he is in charge.
  • "Mister Danforth is a pretentious and selfish judge, who is extremely loyal to the rules and regulations of his position. Public opinion and his acute adherence to the law are most important to him. He seems to secretly know that the witch trials in Salem are all a lie yet will not release any of the prisoners because he is afraid of being viewed as weak and having his theocratic reputation undermined. When Proctor knowingly defies his authority by refusing to lie and sign a public confession saying that he is guilty of witchcraft and accusing others, Danforth immediately sentences to hang along with the other prisoners including Rebecca Nurse."(copied from Wikipedia)

History

- Leaders: Bridget and Melissa
3 others devide questions between you, the leaders will guide you, collate the info and add to the wiki.
(Ally, Georgia and Matt Y)
1. Why did the Puritans leave England?
Puritans who can be described as members of a group of English Protestants who advocated strict religious discipline, left England for New England in the years 1630 to 1640. This is reffered to as the Great Migration.
They left for 2 major reasons, King James the first and his successor King Charles the first, made the lives of the Puritans miserable as they were determined to combat the growing Puritan population of England. They achieved this in 1629 when king Charles, dissolved the parliament which was largely run by puritans and posed as a threat to the kings authority, this took away a lot of the puritans power. This decision made the religious and political climate so hostile that many Puritans wished to leave the country. They longed for religious freedom and set up a "New England", which would be modelled on their own theological teachings. The Puritans believed they were abandoning an England that was doomed to suffer God's wrath. And they were assisting in God's divine plan while migrating to America.
Extra: The name "Puritan" was not coined until the 1560s, and was a term of abuse which means “extremists” . Early America, especially in Massechusets and the surrounding areas was a strong theocracy. This means that church and state were not seperate, law was dictated by the bible and god was the supreme head of state. Thanks Ed Hi Georgia = can you find out what "Theocracy" means. (Ed put it in his.)
-Georgia (the ultimate puritan)
2. Summarise witchcraft in Salem in 1692?
File:Matteson-witch.jpg
File:Matteson-witch.jpg

The Salem witch trials occured between February 1692 and May 1693. 26 people were convicted of the capital felony of witchcraft in the Salem Village but throughtout colonial Massachusetts, 150 were arrested and imprisoned. out of the 26 people, 19 men and women were led down to Gallows Hill near Salem village and were hung. Corey Giles ( a man of over 80 years old) was pressed to death by stones for not for refusing to submit to a trial on witchcraft charges. According to their law, if you were to float you were a witch and if you sank... you died - Wikipedia.
-Bridget
3. What is the historical accuracy of the play
?

"This play is not history in the sense in which the word is used by the academic historian." -Arthur Miller
Miller has used trial records, letters, certain broadsides written at the time and any other information available to help create his characters and plot of 'The Crucible'. He claims that the fate of each character is exactly that of his historical model, and there is no one in the drama who did not play a similar - and in some cases exactly the same - role in history.

There are many websites and blogs to this day that discuss the historical innaccuracies of the play
**Some examples for anyone to browse through if you wish ( http://www.17thc.us/docs/fact-fiction.shtml , http://www.enotes.com/crucible/group/discuss/arthur-miller-277 , http://www.como.stpaul.k12.mn.us/Historical_Innacuracies.html,)

Some of the most discussed historical innaccuracies:

  • He fused certain characters into one: for example the judges "Hathorne" and "Danforth" are representative of several judges in the case.
  • the number of young girls involved was similarly reduced.
  • Abigail's age was increased to allow the plot device of the relationship with Proctor.
  • The action of the play takes place only seventy years after the community arrived as settlers from Britain, and the characters would have had retained strong regional dialects from the home country. Miller ignored this, giving all his characters the same colloquialisms, such as "Goody" for good wife, and drawing on the rhythms and speech patterns of the King James Bible to achieve the effect of historical perspective he wanted.
Miller answers these criticisms by saying he wasn't trying to write an accurate history rather
"I believe the reader will discover here the essential nature of one of the strangest and most awful chapters in human history" - Miller