Across The Barricadesexternal image 0198320795.jpg

Hey guys

Just put your question in a big heading then put your infomation underneath it


realistic show about children's lives back in 1972. shows oppostion towards british soliers, IRA, hatreid between prods and micks..etc.


The women of the play will be wearing light types of make-up with dark lipstick that is of a red - pink colour because in the 1970's women did not wear alot of make-up .

The women of the play i plan to make their makeup quite natural with foundation and a little blush but i want them to have lips that stand out and i will be doinq this by having the girls wear dark red or pink lipstick depending on the age group theie character is . If you are an older women you will have dark red and if you are a younger women character you will have dark pink lipstick on.
I dont plan to use much makeup for the men but a little lipgloss and blush. But if the men have to look injured and beaten up i will make them have a dark purple to blue eyeshadow to make a bruise sort of lookin injury.

By Shayna =]

Set - cafe and Sadie's house (the projections)

bex <-----click
by rebecca

Find details of IRA attacks in London

The IRA that launched the attacks on London were actually the anti-treaty Irish Republican Army. They did not support the Anglo-Irish treaty which was between Great Britain and Ireland. Some of the main points of the treaty were that Britain would remove most of their forces from Ireland, that Ireland would become a self-govening dominion of the British empire, the British monarch would be the head of state and the treaty would have superior status in Irish law.
The split over the treaty led to the Irish civil war which was eventually won by the pro-treaty side. The split over the treaty also resulted in the formation of the new IRA (the anti-treaty Irish Republican Army) who launched a series of attacks on London in the twentieth century.

Who? The IRA (who descended from the Irish volunteers whose main purpose was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland.") Their aim was similar to that of the IRA yet the IRA wanted a republic Ireland and fought escape British rule.

Where? London, England (Great Britain)

When? The IRA (Irish Republican Army) began to bomb different areas of London in 1939 and continued to attack the city right through till 1995 when they declared a cease-fire. Yet only a year later they were held responsible for another bombing and a second cease-fire has been in place since 1997.

Why? The IRA were fighting to remove all British troops from Northern Ireland and reuniting Ireland. They wanted to be free of Britain's rule and British troops, police officers, prison guards, and judges were amoung those targeted by the IRA.

What? Some of the IRA activities to gain freedom from Britain were bombings, assassinations, kidnappings, punishment beatings, smuggling, and robberies. They managed to bomb London thirty six times in 1973 and are responsible for around 1,800 deaths. Some of their major bombings are:
  • 1972: The IRA went on a bombing spree known as "Bloody Friday" in Belfast which let the city feel the effect of twenty two bombs in seventy five minutes which left nine dead and over a hundred injured.
  • 1974: Two IRA bombs went off in Birmingham which killed nineteen people and left almost two hundred people seriously injured.
  • 1974: The IRA were suspected in the explosion of the Tower of London which killed one and left many with lost limbs and serious facial injuries.
  • 1982: Two IRA bombs that went off in Hyde Park and Regent's Park in London killed 11 British soldiers and wounded more than forty others who were mostly civilian onlookers.
  • 1983: Six people are killed and as many as ninety injured following an IRA bombing outside of Harrods department store in west London.
  • 1996: A truck bomb that ripped through the Canary Wharf office development in the Docklands area of London killed two people and wounded thirty nine others causing more than $127 million in damage.

How? Many of the bombs were in cars parked near buildings but some were planted in or around buildings and one was even in a torch.

By Courtney Smith

The Twelfth Day of July ,Ireland

This public holiday is to celebrate the Protestants defeating the Catholics in the Battle of Aughrim, 1691 (though, due to the Gregorian calendar, and the Orangemen’s preference of the Battle of the Boyne.) Irish Protestants celebrate it and have a number of celebrations, generally marches, to commemorate this occasion. It is run by the Orangemen, and is occasionally called Orange Fest. It happens inside Northern Ireland mainly, though can occur in other parts of the world. The parades started in the early 19th century.

Celebrations start around April, as people begin to prepare and put decorations up. On the 11th of July, the Protestants have massive bonfires to prepare. The following day, the parade happens, and starts at an Orange Hall and proceeds towards a field where anyone can come and listen to speeches. Orange Lodges march together and people wear orange slashes and carry banners and signs depicting symbols and pictures of Protestant figures.
Between the 1970’s and 2005, British soldiers were deployed to keep the parade under control. This stopped in 2006. Ethan

Clothing in 1970’s

Picture3.pngPicture1.pngPicture2.pngPicture4.pngPicture5.pngThe 70’s was the era of hippies and anti-Vietnam-war, the hippyness brought through exotic dress from hot countries, such as robes. The fashion for unisex was on its ‘upswing’.
Women in the 70’s liked to choose what they wore, whether it was a mini skirt, maxi dress, or hot pants! In the evening fashions such as straight or flared Empire line dresses with sequins and exotic sleeves were the ‘High class’ style.
In the early to mid 1970’s, Ireland followed Britain’s boot boy subculture. This influenced the teen male fashion. Parallel jeans were flared jeans that stopped mid calf. These were worn with heavy workman’s ‘bovver’ boots, braces (which are US style suspenders) and denim jackets.
Hair was worn longish by the middle of the decade (probably because that’s how long it took them to grow their hair).
Women adopted the ‘wrinkled’ look for a short period in 1975, flared denim skirts, just below the knee in length. ‘Cool’ colours to wear were dusty rose, Prussian blue, bottle green, rust, and brown.
Teen girls would have worn thier hair straight down either side, with the part in the middle. Denim would have been the most worn fabric, denim jeans and t-shirts would have been worn by both sexes, and denim jackets would have been common.
Here is an image of two girls in the IRA that I thought would be interesting.
YOUTUBE Belfast- toughest towns, it gives you a good perspective of what is going on today, WARNING it is disturbing

YOUTUBE Northern Ireland 1960s/1970s Documentary, its an hour long so make sure you have lots of time on your hands. It is quite boring but if you are paitent it will give you a good history of the conflict and it helped me to understand the whole Prod vs Mick thing.
by Giverny

Images of Belfast, 1970's ..Rebecca
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Soldiers attacked by rioters, Falls Road Belfast

Soldiers on a street in Belfast
Soldiers on a street in Belfast

Troops supported police operations from 1969 onwards.
Drumcree Church July 1998
Drumcree Church July 1998

Troops watch as Orangemen gather beside Drumcree Church.

Soldiers search an outbuilding in a remote part of the Northern Ireland countryside
Soldiers search an outbuilding in a remote part of the Northern Ireland countryside

British soldiers were initially welcomed into nationalist communities when they arrived in 1969 (Picture courtesy of MoD)
British soldiers were initially welcomed into nationalist communities when they arrived in 1969 (Picture courtesy of MoD)

Londonderry 1970
Londonderry 1970

Troops on the streets became a regular sight in Northern Ireland after 1969.
View from behind the British Army barricade
View from behind the British Army barricade

On 30 January 1972 British paratroopers opened fire on civil rights demonstrators in Londonderry. The day became known as Bloody Sunday. (Photo by William L. Rukeyser)
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3277981, Getty Images /Hulton Archive
3277981, Getty Images /Hulton Archive

Armed British soldiers enforce a curfew on the Falls Road in Belfast. (Photo by Malcolm Stroud)
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Loyalist banner and graffiti on a building in a side street off the Shankill Road, Belfast, 1970

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A little girl looks at British soldiers as they stand guard at a checkpoint in Belfast in 1976. Evidence is emerging that the British army used waterboarding during interrogations on prisoners in Northern Ireland during the Troubles, according to a report Tuesday.
A little girl looks at British soldiers as they stand guard at a checkpoint in Belfast in 1976. Evidence is emerging that the British army used waterboarding during interrogations on prisoners in Northern Ireland during the Troubles, according to a report Tuesday.

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A teenage civilian is arrested by British troops during a civil rights demonstrations in Belfast
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1971: A British soldier searching a Belfast teenager
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7th December 1971: Children jeer at British soldiers while a fire smoulders in the street behind them.
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1972: Armed British soldiers on patrol in Lisbon Street, Belfast, during the Official IRA's unconditional ceasefire.
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Children hijack vehicles to celebrate the shooting of a British soldier by an IRA sniper in West Belfast, 12th April 1972.
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A woman meets a British Army patrol as she enters Northern Ireland from the Republic of Ireland along an unauthorised road closed to traffic, 28 January 1978
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13th May 1981: Schoolboys in a Catholic area of Belfast at play on the streets near a British soldier on patrol.

How and why did Northern and Southern Ireland Split?

I 'll try my best to make this explanation as short and straight to the point as possible. cos it's really bloody long!
The reasons behind the Split of Northern and Southern Ireland are the cause of a mixture of religion and politics. Ireland (all or part of it, at various times) was a colony of the English (originally the Anglo-Normans) from the 12th century. From the late middle ages it was a kingdom, under the same monarch as England, but a separate country. In law and in practice, the Irish government was usually subordinate to the English government. The ultimate reasons behind the division was because of the southern region's wanting to be their own country, and Northern Ireland's loyalty to Britain. The 2 side's identity were not only represented by their thoughts/ objectives, but also importantly represented by their religion.
The root of the division in religion goes all the way back to Henry the 8th, when he created the Protestant Religion ( so he could divorce his wives and also get his hands on the power of the ministries-as well as some cold hard cash) He made the Church of England. which is basically the Anglican religion. Now at that time, the only religion in the United Kingdom/ Europe is Catholicism. The Prods, in Northern Ireland, they're the ones that stand by Henry's/ English religion and are the ones that are loyal to the Crown, hence that's where they got the name - The Loyalists. ( They're British suck-ups). The Catholic's down south, are the ones that want a united Ireland, and to be free of British rule. ( The Loyalists had the union jack as their symbol while the Catholics used the four leaf clover)

You'd think the divide was as simple as that, but there's complicating factors like that fact 1 third of the population in Northen Ireland is dominated by Catholics. Near the borders such as Tyrone there are predominant catholic communities that stand strong on their nationalist beliefs. Also, there are communities of Prodestants living in Southern Ireland. This sort of heat ead things up a bit.

The 2 sides have always fighted and always had division/ religious classification among themselves. Irish Nationalism among the Catholics especially grew in the 18th century when the Ascendancy and the Presbyterians had begun to become allies on political and nationalistic issues. However, has Nationalism grew, so did Unionism.
Several times, the unionists threatened insurrection against their own government in order to stay under that government.
Fast forward to the First World War. The British Parliament had passed an Irish Home Rule bill, but its implementation was delayed because of the war. A small band of Irish Republicans, holding that independence was Ireland's of right and not in England's gift, staged an armed rebellion (the Easter Rising) in 1916, briefly taking over a small part of central Dublin. The government acted harshly, executing several of the rebels, and cracking down hard in general. This led most of the country to side with the rebel cause. It quickly became ungovernable by Britain.
The Irish War of Independence ( mounted by the IRA against BRITAIN) arose from 1919 to 1921. and this led to the Ango- IRish Treaty between the British and this Collins guy. the British offered a peace treaty along with the recognition of the Irish Free State. The Treaty was meant to set peace and compromise however, there was a large proportion of Republicans that thought the Treaty was a betrayal of Ireland. The Republicans wanted to be well, a republic, but the treaty just made them a FREE STATE- the Irish Free State would be an autonomous dominion of the British Empire with the British monarch as head of state, in the same manner as Canada and Australia.
The people of Ireland were divided as to whether or not to accept such a treaty, and because of the conflict over the Treaty, the Irish civil war happened from 1922 till 1923. This was fought over those that were pro-treaty ( Free Staters) and Anti-Treaty ( Republicans).The Pro-treaty side won in the end.

So yeah. After the civil war, Southern Ireland was a Free State, with those in government swearing allegiance to the British Crown. In 1937, a Constitution was drawn up naming the State as Eire from which came the Republic of Ireland. The other 6 counties (Antrim, Armagh, Fermanagh, Tyrone, Down and Derry) remain as part of the United Kingdom but have evolved into a state with it's own governing body in what some call Northern Ireland in many case england invaded ireland.

Republican attitude towards the use of violence

“A state of war exists and murder and violence against the English are not crimes until the alien invaders
have left the country.”

An t’Óglach (IRA newspaper), 31 January 1919

What is Terrorism?

Terrorism is the systematic use of Fear| especially as a means of coercion. At present, the International community has been unable to formulate a universally agreed, legally binding, criminal law. Common definitions of terrorism refer only to those violent acts which are intended to create fear (terror), are perpetrated for an ideological goal (as opposed to a lone attack), and deliberately target or disregard the safety of non-combatants (civilians).
Some definitions also include acts of unlawful violence and war. The history of terrorist organizations suggests that they do not select terrorism for its political effectiveness. Individual terrorists tend to be motivated more by a desire for social solidarity with other members of their organization than by political platforms or strategic objectives, which are often murky and undefined.
The word "terrorism" is politically and emotionally charged, and this greatly compounds the difficulty of providing a precise definition. Studies have found over 100 definitions of “terrorism”. The concept of terrorism may itself be controversial as it is often used by state authorities to delegitimize political or other opponents, and potentially legitimize the state's own use of armed force against opponents (such use of force may itself be described as "terror" by opponents of the state.). A less politically and emotionally charged, and more easily definable, term is violent non-state actor (though the semantic scope of this term includes not only "terrorists," while excluding some individuals or groups who have previously been described as "terrorists").
Terrorism has been practiced by a broad array of political organizations for furthering their objectives. It has been practiced by both right-wing and left-wing political parties, religious groups, revolutionaries, and ruling governments. One form is the use of violence against noncombatants for the purpose of gaining publicity for a group, cause, or individual.


WHO ARE THE IRA??????????

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann[1]) was an Irish republican revolutionary military organisation. It was descended from the Irish Volunteers, an organisation established on 25 November 1913 that staged the Easter Rising in April 1916.


In 1969 the IRA split into two groups, the majority, or “officials,” advocating a united socialist Ireland but disavowing terrorist activities, and the “provisionals,” claiming terrorism as a necessary catalyst for unification. The “provisionals” then began a systematic terrorist campaign in Northern Ireland. In 1972 the “provisionals” extended their terrorism to England, where it culminated in the bombing (1974) of a Birmingham pub that killed 19 persons. In response the British parliament passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act, outlawing the IRA in Britain. The IRA assassinated (1979) Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, and unsuccessfully tried to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in Brighton, England.


also called Provisional Irish Republican Army
republican paramilitary organization seeking the end of British rule in Northern Ireland and the unification of the province with the republic of Ireland.
The IRA was created in 1919 as a successor to the Irish Volunteers, a militant nationalist organization founded in 1913. The IRA’s purpose was to use armed force to render British rule in Ireland ineffective and thus to assist in achieving the broader objective of an independent republic, which was pursued at the political level by Sinn Féin, the Irish nationalist party.

Good video about events in the 1970's, a few videos. What the IRA did.

Brittany :) To be sure, to be sure :)

What is a petrol bomb???

A petrol bomb is made up of a bottle filled with a flammable liquid such as petrol, with a rag stuffed in the top as a wick. It is used by ill equipped amateur fighters. It is made just before it is thrown and is used to light things aflame and not blow them up automatically. Also known as a gasoline bomb, Molotov bomb or Molotov cocktail.
What is a car bomb?
A car bomb is a bomb that is attached to a
vehicle then set off . Commonly used for assassinations, terrorist attacks or guerrilla warfare. It is known to kill everyone in the car and people near the explosive. It also causes damage to buildings etc. The bomb can be set off in many different ways like starting the engine, depressing the accelerator , the brake pedals or opening the doors X}

Who are the Orangemen?

The Orange Institution (more commonly known as the Orange Order or Orange Lodge) is a Protestant fraternal organisation based mainly in Northern Ireland and Scotland, though it has lodges throughout the Commonwealth and the United States. The Institution was founded during 1796 near the village of Loughgall in County Armagh, Ireland. name is a tribute to Dutch-born Protestant William of Orange, who had defeated the army of Catholic James II at the Battle of the Boyne (1690).

To promote and propagate "Biblical Protestantism" and the principles of the Reformation. To commemorate via Parades and Orange Walks on The Twelfth the life and the accession of the protestant William of Orange to the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland, during the Glorious Revolution and his victory over Roman Catholic, Jacobite, forces led by James II at the Battle of the Boyne ensuring a protestant succession to the monarchy.
The Order's three main founders were James Wilson (founder of the Orange Boys), Daniel Winter and James Sloan.[17] The first Orange lodge established in nearby Dyan, County Tyrone. Its first grand master was James Sloan of Loughgall, in whose inn the victory by the Peep-o'-Day Boys was celebrated.[18] Like the Peep-o'-Day Boys, one of its goals was to hinder the efforts of Irish nationalist groups and uphold the "Protestant Ascendancy". When the United Irishmen rebellion broke out in 1798, Orangemen and ex-Peep-o'-Day Boys helped government forces in suppressing it. According to Ruth Dudley Edwards and two former grand masters, Orangemen were among the first to contribute to repair funds for Catholic property damaged in the violence surrounding the rebellion.

The Orange Institution in Ireland has the structure of a pyramid. At its base are about 1400 private lodges; every Orangeman belongs to a private lodge. Each private lodge sends six representatives to the district lodge, of which there are 126. Depending on size, each district lodge sends seven to thirteen representatives to the county lodge, of which there are 12. Each of these sends representatives to the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, which heads the Orange Order.


external image orange_march.jpgOrangemen marching in the parades leading up to the celebrations on the Twelfth of July.

Sarah :D
"I am not young enough to know everything"
Oscar Wilde

What is “lodge”?

Lodge is another name for the Orange Institution (more commonly known as the Orange Order or Orange Lodge) a Protestant fraternal organisation based mainly in Northern Ireland and Scotland, though it has lodges throughout the Commonwealth and the United States. The Institution was founded during 1796 near the village of Loughgall in County Armagh, Ireland. It is strongly linked to unionism.Its name is a tribute to Dutch-born Protestant William of Orange, who had defeated the army of Catholic James II at the Battle of the Boyne (1690).
Observers have accused the Orange Institution of being a sectarian organisation, due to its goals and its exclusion of Roman Catholics as members.Non-creedal, non-trinitarian denominations (such as Mormons, Unitarians and some branches of Quakers) are also ineligible for membership. (These denominations do not exist with numerous members where most Orange lodges are established).

What are Protestants?

Protestant is a religion and the word refers to any Christian group that developed from Henry VII’s Reformation. So this includes almost every Christian religion other than Catholism. The Church of Ireland had originally been Catholic but after the reformation it then became Protestant. The Reformation was when King Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church. The Reformation did not really have an effect on Ireland until the 1560’s in the Elizabethan Era. The English originally colonised Northern Ireland so it is predominantly Protestant whereas the South is and has always been Catholic.


The Play & The Playwright...

This is more based on the author and the novel because there wasn't much information on the play etc.

Author: Joan Lingard

About: Lingard is a British novelist who writes for both adult and children. She is most famous for the five novels she has written about the characters Kevin and Sadie. The five books are: 'The Twelfth of July', 'Across the Barricades', 'Into Exile', 'A Proper Place', 'Hostages to Fortune' and 'The Story Continues'...

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The Story: Lingard wanted to write with a balanced view in terms of the Catholics and the Protestants as she believes they both had good and bad aspects to them. Her aim in writing the story was to get people to think about how people can be prejudice and how this in turn can lead to separation in parts of society, e.g. "us" and "them".

An example of this is in Lingard's first novel of the series, 'The Twelfth Day of July' . The author alternates the chapters in the book to give a fair amount of content to both the Catholics and the Protestants. She also created alternate characters i.e. Protestants = Sadie (16), Tommy (17)... Catholics = Brede (16), Kevin (17). Each side has a younger sister, aged sixteen and an older brother aged seventeen to maintain a sense of balance throughout the series that is equally as evident in the play.

- Grace