Here! Use this for shared revision for the externals.

Don't forget to upload the ATC education pack on their 2 plays.

Notes and Research on Daughters of Heaven

Irish History

(I read and learnt all of it, because I'm crazy like that, but if you want the basics read only the first few pages)

Catholicism and it's Views on Homosexuality etc.

(I only selected uselful information, there's a lot though.)


Canterbury University History and Ilam information
Canterbury University History
When established in 1873, Canterbury College, as the University was originally known, was only the second university in New Zealand. Housed in graceful stone buildings on a central city block, it was dependent for survival on rents from high country farms with which it had been endowed by the Canterbury Provincial Council.
It was set up on the Oxbridge model with one major difference: women students were admitted from the start. An early graduate, Helen Connon, became the first woman in the then British Empire to win honours.
Ernest Rutherford, Canterbury’s most distinguished graduate, studied at the University in the 1890s. He discovered his own scientific ability during a year of postgraduate research before taking up a scholarship to Cambridge. A contemporary of Rutherford, Apirana Ngata of Ngati Porou, was the first Maori graduate from any New Zealand university. The portraits of these two men, respectively, grace the nation’s $100 and $50 bank notes.
For most of its first 100 years the University was situated in the centre of Christchurch (now the Arts Centre). By 1975 it had completed its move to a spacious purpose-built 76 hectare site in the suburb of Ilam, 7km from the old city site. It comprises a central complex of libraries, lecture theatres, laboratories and staff accommodation surrounded by playing fields, woodlands and the renowned Ilam Gardens. On 1 January 2007 the neighbouring Christchurch College of Education, the second oldest teachers' training college in New Zealand, merged with the University and became UC's sixth College/School.
Canterbury offers undergraduate and postgraduate courses in some 50 disciplines, from accountancy to zoology. It has a number of specialist research centres and operates five major field stations at Kaikoura, Mt John (University Observatory), Cass, Westport and Harihari. Locally, six halls of residence provide board for up to 2000 students.
Some 12,000 students are enrolled and each year about 3000 students graduate, 650 of them with higher degrees. The University has retained links with the old town site, now home to the Christchurch Arts Centre, using it as the starting point for graduation processions each year.


Where was the Hulmes' home located?

[jp,ad] Ilam was (and still is) owned by the University of Canterbury (then Canterbury university College). In the early 50s it was used for official entertaining as well as for housing the Rector and the Rector's family. Its gardens were beautiful and locally-renowned. It is a spacious, elegant homestead in an idyllic, spectacular setting. It is located on the present grounds of The University of Canterbury, about 4 km west of Pauline's house, in a well-to-do neighbourhood.
At the time shown in "Heavenly Creatures," the College had purchased lands surrounding the Ilam homestead but there was only one College department there--the School of Fine Arts, whose students were mostly young women. Nearby, the land was still in the form of paddocks, for horses, and farmland. Ilam was on the outskirts of Christchurch then, and the countryside was a short bike ride away.
However, in "Heavenly Creatures," we get the impression that Ilam is a fairy-tale house set off all by itself, far from the world.

Who lived in the Hulmes' home, Ilam?

[jp] At the beginning of the film, Ilam is occupied by Dr Henry Hulme, Hilda Hulme, Juliet Hulme and Jonathon Hulme.
Later, Bill Perry moved into a semi-private 'flat' at Ilam. The North American release version of "Heavenly Creatures" is not very explicit about Bill Perry's moving in, or about the date.

What was the layout of Ilam?

[jp] We see that there is a spacious, wood-panneled front hallway. Walking in the front door, there is a sitting room with fireplace to the right and a dining room to the left. Ahead on the left is the stairway leading up to Juliet's bedroom at the head of the stairs. Upstairs, to the left is the bathroom, with the large cast-iron tub, big enough for two, ahead was Juliet's bedroom and to the right was Hilda Hulme's bedroom. We do not see Henry Hulme's bedroom. Mr Perry's rooms could be reached from inside the house, though it isn't clear where they were located.

What were the living arrangements at Ilam?

[jp] All Ilam occupants had their own bedrooms. Although not made clear in "Heavenly Creatures" it is likely that Pauline also stayed in a separate guest room when she slept over at Ilam, by inference from her real-life diary entries.
In fact, it was clear that everyone slept alone at Ilam. For all of its opulence, Ilam was a house of lonely, compartmentalized solitude in the dark of night. It struck me that all doors were shut in the night scenes in Ilam. Perhaps this is one reason why Juliet and Pauline's sleeping together was so noteworthy; it was the only open example of nocturnal affection to be seen at Ilam.

I know it's called psychology research because that's what I originally started out doing (yes I know now it's psychiatry). This is pretty much psychiatry leading up to the 1950s and also the introduction of family counselling and marriage counselling as ideas.

Sociology- Folie a deux, lesbianism and infatuation by Danielle Sisam

Infatuation is the state of being completely carried away by unreasoned passion or love: 'expresses the headlong libidinal attraction'[1] of addictive love. Usually, one is inspired with an intense but short-lived passion or admiration for someone.


Because in common parlance, 'infatuation is extravagant or foolish love, an infatuated person, quite commonly, is someone who in over-valuing the beloved has mistaken beliefs concerning her or him'.[2]Some consider that 'perhaps infatuation can only be distinguished from romantic love in retrospect...others suggest that infatuation may be the first step towards love...can grow into a more mature love'[3] - marks the first stage of a relationship before 'a bumpy, but nonetheless inevitable, transition from romantic infatuation to mature intimacy'.[4] In such a view, 'lovers begin as prolifically inventive, producing enthralling illusions about each other...only to be disappointed into truth'.[5]
In the case of infatuation, there is usually an obsessor and an object of desire, who may or may not be attainable. In its "pure" state, infatuation is characterized by unrealistic expectations of blissful passion without positive relationship growth or development, and by a lack of the trust, loyalty, commitment, and reciprocity found in maturer love.
Admiration plays a significant part in this, as 'in the case of a schoolgirl crush on a boy or on a female teacher.

[edit]Three types

'Three types of infatuation' have on occasion been distinguished - the first, and perhaps most common, being a state of 'being carried away, without insight or proper evaluative judgement, by blind desire'.[17]

Assumption of a lesbian affair between Hulme and Parker

Were Parker and Hulme lesbian? The nature of their relationship has always been disturbing and insane. This big question remained unanswered. If we look at the context, back in the 1950’s in the conservative religious city Christchurch, there are good reasons to believe that the girls might have been lesbian.

Homosexuality was considered as a mental disorder at that time even if it was not considered illegal. And being publicly labeled lesbian would have direct consequences in their social life, such as discrimination and bad reputation for the girls and their families. However, the impact of this kind of revelation would have been greater for the Hulme family because they belonged to the upper-class contrary to the Parker family (working-class).

For the opinion public, the girls were judged as lesbian murderers. As a result, the same conclusions were revealed in many tabloids at this period. That was the reason why they were called as “dirty-minded” and were labeled as something very bad, such as evil. The lawyers that defended the girls used the fact that they were lesbian to assess their mental deficiency. But it did not work and experts were called to testify that homosexuals were not necessarily insane criminals.

Everyone believed that the relationship in itself was homosexual even if there was no physical aspect of this. It was considered as a repressed homosexuality. In the diaries, there are a lot of sexual allusions between the girls. Though, Parker and Hulme strongly denied that they were lesbian. They asserted that their lovemaking scenes in their novels only implied males; therefore there was no homosexual link in them.

Also, there was another point that Dr Medlicott pointed out: “there was no evidence that Juliet was ever interested in boys and Pauline’s relations with boys often end up in failure.” According to his analysis, the choice of male partners in their dreams and fiction stories was simply a disguise. If they were not lesbian, what was actually the real purpose of killing Parker’s mother?

Folie à deux (English pronunciation: /fɒˈli ə ˈduː/, from the French for "a madness shared by two") (or shared psychosis) is a[1] psychiatric syndrome in which symptoms of a delusionalbelief are transmitted from one individual to another. The same syndrome shared by more than two people may be called folie à trois, folie à quatre, folie en famille or even folie à plusieurs("madness of many"). Recent psychiatric classifications refer to the syndrome as shared psychotic disorder (DSM-IV) (297.3) and induced delusional disorder (F.24) in the ICD-10, although the research literature largely uses the original name. The disorder was first conceptualized in 19th century French psychiatry.[2]


This case study is taken from Enoch and Ball's 'Uncommon Psychiatric Syndromes' (2001, p181): Margaret and her husband Michael, both aged 34 years, were discovered to be suffering from folie à deux when they were both found to be sharing similar persecutory delusions. They believed that certain persons were entering their house, spreading dust and fluff and "wearing down their shoes". Both had, in addition, other symptoms supporting a diagnosis of emotional contagion, which could be made independently in either case.
This syndrome is most commonly diagnosed when the two or more individuals concerned live in proximity and may be socially or physically isolated and have little interaction with other people.
Various sub-classifications of folie à deux have been proposed to describe how the delusional belief comes to be held by more than one person.
  • Folie imposée is where a dominant person (known as the 'primary', 'inducer' or 'principal') initially forms a delusional belief during a psychotic episode and imposes it on another person or persons (known as the 'secondary', 'acceptor' or 'associate') with the assumption that the secondary person might not have become deluded if left to his or her own devices. If the parties are admitted to hospital separately, then the delusions in the person with the induced beliefs usually resolve without the need of medication.
  • Folie simultanée describes either the situation where two people considered to suffer independently from psychosis influence the content of each other's delusions so they become identical or strikingly similar, or one in which two people "morbidly predisposed" to delusional psychosis mutually trigger symptoms in each other.[3]
Folie à deux and its more populous cousins are in many ways a psychiatric curiosity.

History Of Psychiatry

Stephanie Field

Interview with Anne Perry (Juliet Hulme)

Tuberculosis (Mainly useful for Freya and myself, but could also be interesting to those playing other members of the Hulme family):

What is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was first isolated in 1882 by a German physician named Robert Koch who received the Nobel Prize for this discovery. TB most commonly affects the lungs but also can involve almost any organ of the body. Many years ago, this disease was referred to as "consumption" because without effective treatment, these patients often would waste away. Today, of course, tuberculosis usually can be treated successfully with antibiotics.
There is also a group of organisms referred to as atypical tuberculosis. These involve other types of bacteria that are in the Mycobacterium family. Often, these organisms do not cause disease and are referred to as "colonizers" because they simply live alongside other bacteria in our bodies without causing damage. At times, these bacteria can cause an infection that is sometimes clinically like typical tuberculosis. When these atypical mycobacteria cause infection, they are often very difficult to cure. Often, drug therapy for these organisms must be administered for one and a half to two years and requires multiple medications.

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis?
As previously mentioned, TB infection usually occurs initially in the upper part (lobe) of the lungs. The body's immune system, however, can stop the bacteria from continuing to reproduce. Thus, the immune system can make the lung infection inactive (dormant). On the other hand, if the body's immune system cannot contain the TB bacteria, the bacteria will reproduce (become active or reactivate) in the lungs and spread elsewhere in the body. It may take many months from the time the infection initially gets into the lungs until symptoms develop. The usual symptoms that occur with an active TB infection are a generalized tiredness or weakness, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. If the infection in the lung worsens, then further symptoms can include coughing, chest pain, coughing up of sputum (material from the lungs) and/or blood, and shortness of breath. If the infection spreads beyond the lungs, the symptoms will depend upon the organs involved.
“I started with tuberculosis symptoms 12 months before I was diagnosed. Night sweats and a cough were the first signs, then chest pain, fevers, sputum, weakness and weight loss. I had to go to my doctors on five occasions to be told that I had a chest infection, asthma and pleurisy. Eventually, a chest X-ray and blood were taken to discover it was tuberculosis (T.B.). By that time I was really ill and weak. I recall this as a nightmare. I then was taken to two drugs after a couple of months and my symptoms came back. I had to be isolated for nearly two months and given second-line drugs such as streptomycin injections. I had a six-drug therapy which made me feel sick all of the time. It was not nice. I panic every time I have an infection or a cough. I worry that it might be back to haunt me.” – Account from a TB patient

James Mason:

One of Mason’s movies (“Prisoner of Zenda”, 1952) contains a female lead called Deborah, which is possibly where Juliet lifted the name from.
“One of the greatest of all British male stars, tall, dark and saturnine James Mason began as a stage actor after reading architecture at Cambridge, making his professional debut with a rep company in Croydon before being taken on by Tyrone Guthrie at the Old Vic in 1933 to play a useful range of roles.

He entered films with 1935's newspaper thriller, Late Extra (d. Albert Parker), and, once his film career gathered momentum, he rarely appeared on the stage again, with a 1954 season at Stratford, Ontario, as exception. He owed his film start to the legendary American, UK-based agent, Al Parker, who 'discovered' him in 1935 and represented him till he, Parker, died, after which his widow, Margaret Johnston, took over the agency and Mason.

In the 1930s he made about a dozen mostly forgotten films, though given a chance to glower handsomely in, say, The Mill on the Floss (d. Tim Whelan, 1937), or to be the heroine's sensitive protector in Hatter's Castle (d. Lance Comfort, 1941).

It was when he took a riding crop to wicked Margaret Lockwood in The Man in Grey (d. Leslie Arliss, 1943) that he became Everywoman's favourite brute: he persecuted Phyllis Calvert in Fanny by Gaslight (d. Anthony Asquith, 1944); drove Dulcie Gray to drink and suicide in They Were Sisters (d. Arthur Crabtree, 1945); smashed his walking stick over Ann Todd's piano-playing fingers in The Seventh Veil (d. Compton Bennett, 1945); and, as a highwayman, fell in with The Wicked Lady (d. Leslie Arliss, 1945), Lockwood again.

These skilful studies in sexy sadism made him a huge box-office draw, though, when he played the character role of the retired draper in A Place of One's Own (d. Bernard Knowles, 1945), his subtlest work to date, the fans were less interested. Postwar, he gave, in Odd Man Out (d. Carol Reed, 1947), what may be his greatest performance, as a wounded gunman (IRA, though not named) pursued relentlessly through the night-time city to his inevitable end. This is work of tragic stature.

At this point, Mason embarked on the American phase of his stardom, attracting a lot of chauvinistic British criticism for doing so, and for a while the received wisdom was with the Picturegoer scribe who wrote (1950): "Certainly, James does not seem to be advancing his professional career in Hollywood". An auteurist decade later, his work for Max Ophuls in Caught (1948) and The Reckless Moment (1949) and Vincente Minnelli in Madame Bovary (1949) would be accorded new respect.

He did some fine work in Hollywood, including Rommel in The Desert Fox (US, d. Henry Hathaway, 1951), a troubled Brutus in Julius Caesar (US, d. Joseph L.Mankiewicz, 1953) and the tragically doomed Norman Maine in A Star Is Born (US, d. George Cukor, 1954), but it was as if he had turned his back on the easy stardom he had won in Britain in favour of becoming one of the world's best character actors.”
Annotations on research:
What about James Mason would’ve appealed to Juliet? He was totally and utterly unattainable, and provided an excuse for her to shy away from relationships with boys in reality, as she could justify her disdain by claiming they did not meet the standard Mason set. By having him and Mario Lanza as celebrity idols she could detract suspicion away from her sexuality and avoid being questioned without having to put herself in a real relationship where she might be pressured.
Mason frequently played sadistic roles where he was borderline, if not outright,abusive to his female leads. There are two possible reasons this characteristiccould have appealed to Juliet. One, it made him appear very dominant, and combined with the significant age difference, would have likened him subconsciously to a father figure. As Juliet’s relationship with her own father is very distant, this would have provided some motivation for her to connect to this actor. Two, it could reflect low self-worth on her part. Given how she is consistently patronised and ignored by her parents and Bridget treats her with judgemental distrust, it is likely that Juliet’s self worth would be very low.This is also evidenced by her absolute constant need for Pauline to reaffirm her devotion, her controlling and manipulative manner and her delight in winning people over (“Did you see the way I did it!? Twisted her right aroundmy little finger”). Low self-worth would be in keeping with a diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder, of which Juliet displays many of the other symptoms as well.
For Juliet and Pauline
Highest earning films in the 1940-50s

1940: Pinocchio (1940) 1941: Sergeant York (1941) 1942: Bambi (1942)1943: This Is the Army (1943) or A Guy Named Joe (1943) 1944: Going My Way (1944) or//Meet Me in St. Louis (1944)//1945: The Bells of St. Mary's (1945)1946: Song of the South (1946)1947: Forever Amber (1947) or Golden Earrings (1947) 1948: The Snake Pit (1948) or Easter Parade (1948) 1949: Samson and Delilah (1949)

1950: Cinderella (1950) 1951: Quo Vadis (1951)1952: The Greatest Show on Earth (1952) or This Is Cinerama (1952) 1953: Peter Pan (1953) 1954: White Christmas (1954) or 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954) or //Rear Window (1954)// 1955: Lady and the Tramp (1955) 1956: //The Ten Commandments (1956)//1957: //The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957)//1958: South Pacific (1958) 1959: //Ben-Hur (1959)//

1954**Shower of Stars** (TV series)

1954**The Student Prince** Prince Karl (singing voice)

1952**Because You're Mine** Renaldo Rossano

1951**The Great Caruso** Enrico Caruso

1950**The Toast of New Orleans**Pepe Abellard Duvalle

1949**That Midnight Kiss** Johnny Donnetti

1944**Winged Victory** Chorus Member (uncredited)

For the older characters


United Artists Corporation was formed by Charles Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks and D.W. Griffith who were all leading movie stars of the time. Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford were married on March 27 1920 and were feted as the king and queen of the movies. Their home, Pickfair, became the center of social activities in Hollywood. The German film, “The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari”, was released. Jackie Coogan was discovered by Charlie Chaplin and became a star following his role in "The Kid". A foreign film "Passion" brought stardom in the U.S. for Polish actress Pola Negri. Sports stars Babe Ruth and Jack Dempsey made their acting debuts but their acting wasn't up to the same level as their athletic activity. Charlie Chaplin and Harold Lloyd were two of the leading comedians, while Roscoe (Fatty) Arbuckle retired from acting in disgrace following a scandal. Will Rogers, Buster Keaton, Gloria Swanson and Clara Kimball Young were all popular rising actors and actresses. John Barrymore appeared in "Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde".


One of the most important events in 1921 was the rise of Rudolph Valentino as a star. Following his appearance in "The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" the public could not get enough of him. He appeared in "The Conquering Power" and then a major role in "The Sheik" which increased his popularity even further. Paramount Pictures made a total of 101 feature–length movies. Charlie Chaplin finished his contract at First National and then joined Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford at United Artists. Germany's F.W. Murnau directs "Nosferatu" based on the story of Dracula. Charlie Chaplin releases his first feature film, “The Kid”.


"Nanook of the North" was one of the first documentary style films. "The Prisoner of Zenda" with Ramon Navarro was one of the years big hits. Even though many of the movies with stars like Rudolph Valentino, Gloria Swanson and Wallace Reid were only average quality the pulling power of the leading stars attracted the paying public and ensured their success. Walt Disney released the cartoon, “Four Musicians of Bremen”. D.W. Griffiths made "Orphans of the Storm" and "The Two Orphans" starring two attractive sisters, Lillian and Dorothy Gish. "Foolish Wives" by Erich Von Stroheim was a successful movie for Universal. First 3-D movie. Viewing required spectacles with one red and one green lens. Hollywood became the center of film making in the U.S. with 85% of movie production.


One of the great successes of 1923 was the large scale epic "The Covered Wagon", followed by Cecile B. De Mille's epic "The Ten Commandments" which was 2 1/2 hours long and cost $1.5 million. Metreo and Goldwyn combined to form the Metro-Goldwyn studio. Pola Negri, the star of many popular German films was signed by Paramount studio and made her first American film "Bella Donna". Former beauty contest winner Clara Bow appeared in "Down to the Sea in Ships". Douglas Fairbanks Jr appeared in his first film "Stephen Steps Out". Much acclaim was bestowed on a German film, "Siegfried" for the quality of its photography.


The public began the demand bigger and better pictures rather than low budget run-of-the-mill fare, and so bigger budget films were made. Films included "The Sea Hawk", "The Iron Horse", "Dante's Inferno", "Monsieur Beaucaire" with Rudolph Valentino, and "America" by D. W. Griffith. Metro-Goldwyn changed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer with the addition of Louis B. Mayer, and became one of the more powerful studios. Warner Brothers also grew significantly by signing up a swag of new stars and directors. One of the new stars was a dog, Rin-Tin-Tin, who became probably the greatest animal star ever. Harry Cohn, along with his brother Jack and Joe Brandt found Columbia Pictures. Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford, Gloria Swanson, Pola Negri and Rudolph Valentino were still riding high in popularity. The De Mille brothers and D.W. Griffiths were among the leading directors. Many of the former film stars were now directing movies.


1925 was not a good year for the studio or theatre owners with a large drop in box-office takings. This was attributed to the growing popularity of radio. Films that did reasonably well included "The Phantom of the Opera", "The Big Parade", "Peter Pan", and "The Gold Rush" regarded as Charlie Chaplin's best film. Erich von Stroheim's film, “Greed”, is released by MGM after cutting it from 5 1/2 hours, down to 2 1/2 hours. Vitagraph, one of the oldest studios, sold out to Warner Brothers who inherited all the research undertaken by Vitagraph in the field of sound. Cecile B. De Mille went out on his own, independent of any studio. Alfred Hitchcock made his directing debut at age 26 with "The Pleasure Garden". Actors and Actresses who were starting out and yet to become famous included Clark Gable, Joan Crawford, Gary Cooper, and Carole Lombard.


Over 400 feature films were made at a cost of 120 million dollars and there were 14,600 movie theatres in the U.S. Rudolph Valentino died on August 23rd of peritonitis at the age of 31 and huge crowds gathered to watch his funeral train. The technology that would lead to talking pictures was being trialed in different forms. Initially it was just synchronized musical scores but it would soon lead to "talkies". The new two–tone Technicolor color process was used in Douglas Fairbank's "The Black Pirate". Costing over $4 million to make, "Ben Hur" was the hit film of the year. Valentino's last film was "The Son of the Sheik". Swedish film star Greta Garbo received acclaim in "Torrent", while Gary Cooper was applauded for "The Winning of Barbara Worth".

Geography of Greenwich, London

By Freya and Sophie